The Ultimate Beginner’s Mind Guide to Buddha’s Eightfold Path

The foundational teachings of Gautama the Buddha are these Four Noble Truths:

  1. Life consists of suffering.
  2. We suffer because we cling.
  3. There is deliverance from this suffering.
  4. It’s called the Noble Eightfold Path.
For your entertainment and enlightenment, here are eight links to eight articles about the eight steps of the Eightfold Path. Which are actually not linear steps at all, but rather eight aspects to cultivate on the path toward full liberation.

Wise View: see the unfolding of Life.

Wise Thought, also known as “Right View,” is the beginning and the end of the path; it simply means to see reality as it is. We grasp the truth of impermanence and understand the law of karma and karmic conditioning. Teachers can show the way, but you must see it for yourself. According to Osho, “Knowing means you open your eyes and you see. Knowledge means somebody else has opened his eyes and he has seen and he talks about it, and you simply go on gathering information. Knowing is possible only if your eyes are healed, then it is authentically your experience.”

Wise Intention: surrender and be kind.

The Buddha explained Wise, or Right, Intention as threefold: the intention of renunciation, the intention of goodwill and the intention of harmlessness… as opposed to three parallel kinds of wrong intention, those governed by desire, ill will and  harmfulness. Wise Intention is exemplified in this short poem. After thieves broke into his hut in 1079, Monk Ryōkan wrote:

At least the robbers
left this one thing behind —
moon in my window.

Wise Speech: say what is true and useful.

Buddha’s four classical teachings on Wise, or Right, Speech are to: abstain from false speech; not slander others; abstain from rude, impolite or abusive language; and not indulge in idle talk or gossip. This is easier said than done! Remember the Buddha-like advice of 18th century essayist Samuel Johnson: “Kindness is in our power, even when fondness is not.”

Wise Action: do no harm.

Wise, or Right, Action means following the five precepts… but these are not the five Buddhist Commandments. Hold them lightly. Have discipline, but don’t beat yourself up when you falter. Stated positively, the five precepts ask us to (1) act with reverence for all forms of life, (2) be honest, (3) have integrity in relationships, (4) speak wisely, and (5) consume healthily.

Wise Livelihood: make work worthwhile.

The Buddha warns against careers that harm other beings and suggests that we avoid any occupation that would violate the principles of right speech and right action. He says, “The master of the art of living makes little distinction between his work and his play, his labor and his leisure, his mind and his body, his education and his recreation, his love and his religion. He hardly knows which is which; he simply pursues his vision of excellence in whatever he does, leaving others to decide whether he is working or playing. To him he is always doing both.”

Wise Effort: never give up.

There are four Wise, or Right, Efforts, according to the dharma teachings: (1) Preventing the arising of unwholesome states; (2) Abandonment of any unwholesome states that have already arisen; (3) Cultivation of wholesome states that have not yet arisen; and (4) Keeping wholesome states that have already arisen. As wise old Sir Winston Churchill said, “Continuous effort—not strength or intelligence—is the key to unlocking our potential.”

Wise Mindfulness: be here now.

When the mind understands what causes suffering and what leads to happiness, mindfulness will naturally move toward happiness by letting go of clinging and craving. Paradoxically, this takes daily practice but also unfolds naturally. According to Mindfulness in Plain English, “Mindfulness alone has the power to reveal the deepest level of reality available to human observation. At this level of inspection, one sees the following: (a) all conditioned things are inherently transitory, (b) every worldly thing is, in the end, unsatisfying; and (c) there are really no entities  that are unchanging or permanent, only processes.”

Wise Concentration: focus on the path.

The eighth aspect of the Buddha’s Noble Eightfold Path, Wise Concentration, is to cultivate a mind that is not multitasking but rather directed toward a single-pointed purpose. There are two categories of concentration: one-pointed focusing and moment-to-moment concentration (i.e., mindfulness). All forms of meditation employ both concentration and mindfulness; what varies is the emphasis on each and the specific technique of instruction.

http://www.buddhagautama.com/

Wise Concentration: Moving Away from Multitasking


May you be wise.
image source: loveyourchaos.tumblr.com

{part eight of the eightfold path series}

We live in a distracted way, in a digitized modern world.

“The day will come when man will have to fight noise as inexorably as cholera and the plague,” according to Nobel Prize-winning bacteriologist Robert Koch. He said that in 1905.

Over a century later, acoustic ecologist Gordon Hempton claims that “silence has become an endangered species,” and in any twenty-first century city or suburb, that’s hard to refute. Our ownMindfulness Manifesto here at elephant urges reader to stop, unplug, do nothing, and relax at least a little bit more each day.

The eighth and final “step” of the Buddha’s Noble Eightfold Path, wise concentration, is to cultivate a mind that is not multitasking but rather directed toward a single-pointed purpose. The Sanskrit termsamadhi can be broken down thusly: sam = “with” and “adhi” = to stand. Samadhi is to stand with a solid foundation.

There are two categories of concentration: one-pointed focusing and moment-to-moment concentration, which is also known as mindfulness. All forms of meditation employ both concentration and mindfulness; what varies is the emphasis on each and the specific technique of instruction.

Single-pointed concentration practice

Also known as samatha or calm-abiding meditation, this is a wonderful practice for beginning meditators and for anyone who needs to quiet the mind at the beginning of a sitting session. It is done by simply choosing an object to pay attention to and using mindfulness to notice when the mind slips away. The most common and most readily available object is the breath, but others could be a candle flame, a mantra, the image of a deity, a flower or a waterfall. Rather than using force, we practice letting go of everything except the object of concentration. Concentration puts the five hindrances at bay, but it doesn’t uproot them. That’s why incorporating mindfulness is essential.

Present moment concentration

Mindfulness is simply watching the unfolding of life from moment to moment. As we watch the flow of physical and mental phenomena, we begin to see why we suffer. We see that there are no fixed things, only processes. We realize in our innermost core that there is actually nothing to hold on to. Through the concentrated, mindful mind, truth becomes integrated into our very veins and touches every aspect of our lives. The mud begins to settle and the factors of concentration begin to emerge. Paradoxically, it takes practice and wise effort, but it’s also available to each of us at every moment.

The following five qualities of concentration start to arise with both categories of concentration practice:

1. Initial application: aiming of the mind to the object of concentration (e.g. hitting the gong)
2. Sustaining the connection: holding the mind on the object of concentration (e.g. the resonance of the gong’s sound)
3. Rapture: delight, joy and interest (e.g. seeing a distant oasis in the desert)
4. Happiness: the pleasant feeling that accompanies deep concentration (e.g. arriving at that oasis and drinking the cool water)
5. One-pointed attention

Each of these five factors is said to directly counter one of the five hindrances. Initial application counters sleepiness. Sustaining connection counters doubt. Rapture is the antidote for ill will. Happiness is the antidote for restlessness. And one-pointed attention eradicates sense desire. (Unless, of course, your object of concentration is that sticky desire.)

It’s important to note that concentration is a double-edged sword. Just as a knife can be used to create beautiful carvings or to injure or kill another being, concentration can be directed toward good or evil.

Concentration is the last aspect of the Eightfold Path, yet it is not the culmination of the path. The wisdom of the integration of all eight aspects could be considered the culmination—the way to full liberation.

{Deep gratitude to Andrea Fella of Insight Meditation Center for her clear and lovely Dharma talk on wise concentration.}

Wise Mindfulness: Everything is in Constant Flux.

Image

“Believing that we have to get to somewhere special in order to be free sets us up for suffering. But we can realize that wherever we are, we can come back to the breath, come back to the moment. It does not matter where we just were, it does not matter how bad it was. We just drop all that and come back to the breath.”

~ Cheri Huber

{part seven of eightfold path series}

Mindfulness. The word, like all words, is just a finger pointing at the moon. And yet, it is what we must do in order to live fully. It is the means and the end. Of what is the mind full? Of whatever is happening in the present moment. Bare attention.

According to Mindfulness in Plain English by Bhante Henepola Gunaratana,

“Mindfulness alone has the power to reveal the deepest level of reality available to human observation. At this level of inspection, one sees the following: (a) all conditioned things are inherently transitory, (b) every worldly thing is, in the end, unsatisfying; and (c) there are really no entities  that are unchanging or permanent, only processes.”

The Buddha’s teachings on Right (or Wise) Mindfulness outlines four foundations—training in these four frames of reference can be thought of as looking through four different windows into our experience.

1. The physical body

Start with attention to the breath going in and the breath going out. It is best to start with sitting meditation. We can always connect mindfully with the breathing. From there, we expand to paying attention to posture, daily activities, interactions, and ultimately every single thing—all by connecting to direct experience, the physicality of what’s going on in the body and what is being perceived by the five senses.

We start to recognize what is body and what is mind. Look at your hand. You have a concept of “hand.” Then close your eyes and feel your hand from the inside. This is the elemental, pre-conceptual experience of “hand.”

2. The feeling of our experience

Notice how each and every fleeting experience is either pleasant, unpleasant or neutral. We typically like and want the pleasant, dislike and avoid the unpleasant. This foundation of mindfulness enables us to begin to understand the process of reactivity.

3. The state of mind

The third foundation involves exploring experience through the state of the mind. What color lens are we looking through? Anger? Mindfulness? Sadness? Happiness? Notice whether greed, aversion, desire, delusion, distraction and concentration are present or absent. This practice moves us in the direction of non-reactivity and non-judgment.

4. The dharma

Finally, the fourth foundation views experience through the lens of the Buddha’s teachings. We can be mindful of the hindrances (sense desire, restlessness, sleepiness, hatred, doubt) and constantly notice their presence or absence. What factors lead to the creation—and to the cessation—of these hindrances? Likewise, we observe what supports the arising and sustainability of the factors of enlightenment, which include mindfulness, investigation, energy, rapture, tranquility, concentration and equanimity.

The good news is that when the mind understands what causes suffering and what leads to happiness, the mindfulness will naturally move toward happiness by letting go of clinging and craving. This unfolds naturally.

May all beings be happy.

Wise Effort: Neither Slacking Nor Overachieving.

“Continuous effort—not strength or intelligence—is the key to unlocking our potential.” ~Winston Churchill

{part six of eightfold path series}

Practice should be nourishing, not draining. Mindfulness practice isn’t always rainbows and lollipops, but it needn’t be torturous either. The Buddha taught that practice should be like a well-tuned string instrument. If the strings are too loose, they won’t play a sound. If they are too tight, they will break.

There are four right, or wise, efforts, according to the dharma teachings:

(1) Preventing the arising of unwholesome states.
(2) Abandonment of any unwholesome states that have already arisen.
(3) Cultivation of wholesome states that have not yet arisen.
(4) Keeping wholesome states that have already arisen.

Let’s look at each one in more depth.

Preventing the arising of unwholesome states

Who wants to suffer from unwholesome, unhealthy, unhelpful states of craving, aversion, worry, doubt, and so forth? I don’t. You don’t. Guarding against these negative mental states requires self-study. Sitting. Practicing meditation and cultivating greater mindfulness. Understanding causality—what situations cause you to become agitated? The goal is not to shun, repress or reject these negative states but rather to notice unpleasantness and not get all upset and create stories and commentaries that prolong it.

Abandonment of unwholesome states

Even if you organize your life so that unskillful tendencies are minimized, when they do occur, which they will, you can opt to let go of these unwholesome states. If your mind is a corporate boardroom, the chairperson can employ the veto power of the mind. Just say to yourself, “No, thank you,” or “I’m not going there.” Refuse to get carried away on a detrimental or delusional train of thought.

Cultivation of wholesome states

The compliment to letting go of negative, unwholesome states is generating the positive, helpful states of compassion, love, and wisdom. This is achieved through an ongoing, consistent practice of meditation, yoga, and other holistic methods. It is achieved through lovingkindness (metta) practice, gratitude and generosity.

Keeping wholesome states

Once you attain a wholesome state, make it last. Don’t get complacent. Don’t get bored and seek out a drama to stimulate your ego. Authentic mindfulness is a balance that requires both alertness and relaxation.

“Never, never, never, never give up.” ~Winston Churchill